Uma das coordenadas que
menos chama atenção nesta obra de James Joyce é a referência
que "deveria" existir para cada um dos 18 capítulos com algum
órgão do corpo humano, porém nos três primeiros capítulos
não ha referência a órgão algum.
Charles Peake, autor do
Joyce, the Citizen and the artist, informa que o esquema que Joyce deu
a Linatti a coluna intitulada "Órgãos" se refere a um
elemento muito diferente do romance, e esta primariamente relacionada com o
pano de fundo da cidade e não com a ação. Seria uma adaptação
de uma figura literária tradicional, que é a analogia entre o
corpo humano e o corpo político. Ele indica, em nota de rodapé,
que Hugh Kenner, nas pags 237-8, em Kenner, afirmou que os órgãos
são uma visão de Dublin como uma mecanização, tanto
do Corpo Político, como o Misterioso Corpo de Cristo, sem examinar a
analogia em detalhe, coisa que, aliás, Peake faz limitadamente. Segundo
ele, a razão de não haver órgaos relacionados com os três
primeiros capítulos é porque se passa fora dos limites da cidade
e relata a experiência de um jovem solitário. Ele informa que em
Dubliners, Joyce relacionou paralisia com a condição moral
da cidade e apenas expandiu o conceito em Ulysses.
que o rim do quarto capítulo, "Calypso", aparece porque Bloom
compra e cozinha um rim para seu desjejum. No caso do quinto capítulo,
"Comedores de Lotus", ele usa "genitais", porque imagina
seus genitais flutuando na água do banho. Em "Hades", sexto
capítulo, a relação com "coração",
é porque esta palavra aparece com frequência neste capitulo. Se
o fizéssemos, reduziríamos Joyce a uma escala espiritual mais
simples do que ele se apresenta de forma geral.
Existe uma certa ironia,
por ex., em comparar "pulmões" com os escritórios do
jornal, inalando e exalando um ar fétido de um jornalismo barato e uma
retórica bolorenta. A luta voraz pela existência dos dublinenses
comendo miúdos é apropriadamente ligada com o "esôfago"
em "Lestrygonians". O "cérebro" é ligado aos
intelectuais na biblioteca. O "sangue", é comparado da mesma
forma que Hobbes o faz em Leviathan, "Dinheiro é o sangue
do estado (britânico)". A circulação de negócios
em Dublin em "Rochas Errantes" é indolente, magro e anêmico.
O "ouvido" da cidade em "Sereias" corresponde sentimentalmente
às árias de ópera e as baladas patrióticas porque
como Bloom observa, o vício musical é um tipo de "embriaguez",
onde pensar é proibido. "Músculos" encontra equivalência
na energia e violência dos preconceitos mostrados em "Cyclops".
O "útero" da cidade é sua Maternidade, onde zombeteiros
louvam contracepção e o artista ouve a voz do deus "paridor".
O esqueleto é representado pela dura realidade do tempo, do espaço
e das leis da ciência, que governam a vida. O solilóquio de Molly
representa a "carne" da condição física humana,
cobrindo o que falta.
O padrão de Joyce
é relacionar com órgãos que não estão funcionando
Fica ai a indicação
e o endereço para quem for fazer as análises posteriores. Pessoalmente,
acho insatisfatório e "narrow minded" as comparações.
Transcrevo a porção
publicada por Alice Rae, no seu site www.LightThroughMcLuhan.org
The source of McLuhan's
concept of the technology as the 'extension' of a sense has been widely debated.
In his 'Report on Project in Understanding New Media' (1960), reformulating
Harold Innis, McLuhan says that 'Any medium whatever is an extension, a projection
in space or in time, of our various senses.' (NAEB III: 13; see Innis, 1991
: 31) In Take Today (1972) and at www.marshallmcluhan.com, the concept
of 'extension' is credited to American writer Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882),
and dated 1870. To Emerson, 'The human body is the magazine of inventions, the
patent-office, where are the models from which every hint was taken. All the
tools and engines on earth are only extensions of its limbs and senses' (TT
86). James M. Curtis (1978: 34-35, 61-79; 1981: 147-148) attributes the concept
of technology as 'extension' to German writer Ernst Kapp in Outlines of a Philosophy
of Technology (1877), prefigured by Hegel's Philosophy of Nature in his Encyclopedia
of the Philosophical Sciences (1816, revised 1827 and 1830); he finds the same
concept in Henri Bergson's Creative Evolution (1907) and The Two Sources of
Religion and Morality (1932); in Part Two of Ernst Cassirer's Philosophy of
Symbolic Forms (1925), translated as Mystical Thought; in Pierre Teilhard de
Chardin's The Phenomenon of Man (1955, written 1938-1940), influenced by Bergson;
and in Jean Gebser's Ursprung und Gegenwart (1949/1953, literally 'Origin and
Present', tr. The Ever-Present Origin), influenced by both Cassirer and Bergson.
Bergson's work was familiar to McLuhan from the late 1930's, and Teilhard's
from the late 1940's; in fact McLuhan once attributes the concept of extension
to Teilhard (L 292). While there is no evidence that McLuhan had read Cassirer's
Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, his Language and Myth (1946), translated by Susanne
K. Langer from the short essay Sprache und Mythos (upon which Cassirer's three
volume Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is based), is referenced by McLuhan in The
Gutenberg Galaxy (GG 25-26). Here, Cassirer (1946: 59) says that the evolution
of humankind and its environment is characterized by 'increasing mediation',
reflected in 'the invention and use of tools'; moreover, 'as soon as man employs
a tool, he views it not as a mere artifact of which he is the recognized maker,
but as a Being in its own right, endowed with powers of its own. Instead of
being governed by his will, it becomes a god or daemon on whose will he depends
- to which he feels himself subjected ...' Richard Cavell (2002: 256-257, note
52) first finds McLuhan using the term 'extension' in an article of 1955, 'A
Historical Approach to the Media', and notes still other incidences of the concept
that may have influenced McLuhan: e.g. Nobel laureate Georg Von Békésy's
Sensory Inhibition (1967) and Le Corbusier's concept of decorative art as 'an
extension of our limbs - in fact artificial limbs.'
likely that McLuhan's concept of 'extension' was partly inspired by James Joyce.
McLuhan first read Ulysses in 1936-1937, while working as a Graduate Assistant
at Wisconsin University (L 92). Joyce presents the chapters of Ulysses each
as an analogy of an organ of the human body: one chapter represents the heart,
another the brain, another the lungs, another the genitals, the eye, the ear,
the nerves, and so on, as revealed in Joyce's chart of the book (Gilbert, 1930:
40). McLuhan wrote in 1952: 'The shape of Ulysses is that of the city presented
as the organic landscape of the human body. The shape of [Finnegans Wake] is
the same, save that the landscape of the human mind and body is presented more
intimately and under a much greater diversity of forms ...' (IL 158) Refracted
through Joyce, the city functions as an organizing body (or sensus communis)
for the manifold 'extensions' of man, a concept further pursued by McLuhan from
the early 1950's in discussions with Jacqueline Tyrwhitt. McLuhan acknowledges
Joyce in an article of 1967, writing that 'Joyce ... calls the extensions of
man, whether in weaponry or clothing, the "extensions of man". For
every extension not only colors and enlarges our lives but also extinguishes
a part of us.' (McLuhan in Matson & Montagu, 1967: 39)
Richard Cavell (2002: 82)
connects McLuhan's concept to Sigmund Freud's description of the technology
as an 'auxiliary organ' or 'prosthetic' in Civilization and its Discontents
(1930). Freud says that: 'With every tool man is perfecting his own organs,
whether motor or sensory, or is removing the limits to their functioning....
Man has, as it were, become a kind of prosthetic God.' (SE XXI: 90-92) McLuhan
read Civilization and Its Discontents in the years prior to the publication
of The Mechanical Bride (1951). However, it is Edmund T. Hall's book The Silent
Language (1959) from which McLuhan cites in The Gutenberg Galaxy: 'Today man
has developed extensions for practically everything he used to do with his body....
all man-made material things can be treated as extensions of what man once did
with his body or some specialized part of his body.' (Hall, 1959: 79; GG 4)
Ted Carpenter (2001: 19) attributes McLuhan's concept of the technology as 'extension'
to Hall; McLuhan indicates his respect for Hall in a number of letters to Walter
Ong in late 1961 and early 1962, and in one of these letters attributes to Hall
the concept of 'media as extensions of the sense organs' (L 280). McLuhan met
Hall, then Professor of Political Theory and Cultural Relations at John Hopkins
University, Washington, in 1963, when McLuhan visited the University to speak
at the Institute for International Development (L 383, note 1). The two corresponded
over the years, and in 1975, Hall sent McLuhan the proofs for his book Beyond
Culture, which included a note on the term 'extension', indicating that McLuhan
had 'borrowed' the term in The Gutenberg Galaxy (Hall, 1981 : 245, note
4; L 515, note 1). In fact, the concept of 'extension' was not originally Hall's.
Writing to Walter Ong in February 1962, McLuhan says that Hall 'got the idea
of our technologies as outerings of sense and function from Buckminster Fuller';
Fuller (1895-1983), whom McLuhan met at the Delos symposium of 1962, meanwhile
asserted ownership of the concept in a letter of November 1966 (L 287 and 308,
note 1). Fuller, however, was writing in the pre-war era when Freud's work was
generating much interest in America, so we may reasonably assume that Fuller
had read Civilization and its Discontents.
The concept of 'extension'
has also been traced to Lewis Mumford's Technics and Civilization (1934), which
McLuhan read in the 1940's (Curtis, 1978: 74-75; Marchand, 1998 : 77).
In fact characteristic of the concepts put forward by Freud and McLuhan, as
well as by Bergson (whose Creative Evolution predates Civilization and Its Discontents
by more than twenty years), Teilhard, Mumford, and Hall, is that all characterize
technological 'extensions' in terms of the evolutionary process (e.g. SE XXI:
90-91; Mumford, 1946: 10; Hall, 1959: 78-79). McLuhan had been blurring the
distinction between the 'mechanical' and the 'organic' since The Mechanical
Bride, repeating Norbert Wiener's argument that 'since all organic characteristics
can now be mechanically produced, the old rivalry between mechanism and vitalism
is finished' (MB 34) If the technology is no more than an evolutionary adaptation,
then there is no distinction to be found between an organ such as the eye and
a technology such as the telescope. Technology becomes the organs of the environment
itself, leading McLuhan to suggest that 'Man becomes, as it were, the sex organs
of the machine world, as the bee of the plant world, enabling it to fecundate
and to evolve ever new forms.' (UM 46) As he puts it in War and Peace in the
Global Village, 'The extensions of man with their ensuing environments, it's
now fairly clear, are the principal area of manifestation of the evolutionary
process.' (WP 19) Again, in Counterblast: 'The new media are not bridges between
man and nature: they are nature.' (CB 14)
As well as an 'extension',
McLuhan dubs the technology an 'enhancement', 'amplification', 'outering', 'uttering',
or 'translation' of an organ, sense or function; from 1963, he borrows from
the work of Adolphe D. Jonas to characterize the technology as a 'counter-irritant'
or 'auto-amputation'. Note, however, that from 1973 or so, McLuhan ceases to
conceptualize the technology primarily as an 'extension', instead conceptualizing
it as a 'metaphor' or 'word' - 'with a linguistic structure', manifesting four
'simultaneous processes' of 'Enhancement', 'Obsolescence', 'Retrieval' and 'Reversal',
of which extension (i.e. enhancement) is merely one.
© Alice Rae 2009