In the original edition and subsequent, until 1961, the S of the first chapter is a bit higher as well as the M in the 2nd. and the P in the 3rd.chapter, all full-page and a "dot" at the end of episode 17.
They have the function of indicating:
= Subject = Stephen Dedallus
M = Middle = Molly Bloom
P = Predicate = Poldy's = Lopold Bbloom
Dot = . = Q E D = quod erat demonstandum, which means "which had to be demonstrated" or "it has been proved".
It was a medieval pedagogyl
S-M-P indicating the order of cognitive thought
that should be learned.
It suggested a logical narrative structure that the reader could see, but the fictional characters completely ignored.
S + M = P or, the "X" of the question is M, Nora Barnacle or Molly...
More information on Ulysses Annotated by Don Gifford, pg 12, under S.
The similarity between Joyce's Ulysses and Homer is more of a structural correlation, and is the same that is used by scholars of the text. It will be used also here. Harry Blamires quotes some remarks from the critical work ob Thomas MacGreevy about Joyce in Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress, known as Exag, including James Joyce, himself and here it goes:
For Ulysses is an inferno. As Homer sent his Ulysses wandering through the inferno of Greek Mythology and Virgil his Aeneas through one of Roman Mythology so Dante himself voyaged through the inferno of the mediaeval Christian imagination and so Mr. Joyce sent his hero through the inferno of modern subjectivity.
It is very important to note that Blamires think this medieval three tips structuring was not quite achieved by Joyce and the only similarity is structural, as it has already been said.
But that's where the 3 chapters and 18 parts division comes from , with the names extracted from the Ulysses of Homer. Which is what we're using here:
|Part||Homer's Ulysses adopted episode||Page number as at vintage Edition 1961 (brackets [n])|
|I -Telemachiade||Episode 1 - Telemachus||01 - 23|
|Episode 2 - Nestor||24 - 36|
|Episode 3 - Proteus||37 - 51|
|II - Odisseia||Episode 4 - Calypso||54 - 70|
|Episode 5 - Lotus Eaters||71 - 86|
|Episode 6 - Hades||87 - 115|
|Episode 7- Aeolus||116 - 150|
|Episode 8 Laestrygonians||151 - 183|
|Episode 9 - Cila and Caribdis||184 - 218|
|Episode 10 - Wandering Rocks||219 - 255|
|Episode 11 - Sirens||256 - 291|
|Episode 12 - Ciclops||292 - 345|
|Episode 13 - Nausicaa||346 - 382|
|Episode 14 - Oxen of the Sun||383 - 428|
|Episode 15 - Circe||429 - 609|
|III - Nostros||Episode 16 -Eumaeus||612 - 665|
|Episode 17 - Itaca||666 - 737|
|Episode 18 - Penelope||738 - 782|